Tag Archives: neuropsychological evaluation

What is a Neuropsychological Evaluation? – Part 4

This is the last post in our series of posts about neuropsychological evaluations.  We will conclude this series by discussing (1) why an insurance company would ask for an exam, and (2) how a neuropsychological evaluation can impact your disability claim.

Why Would My Insurer Ask for a Neuropsychological Evaluation?

Unfortunately, it is way too common for an insurer to look for ways to deny a claim, even in the face of strong medical proof of a disability.  This can be especially true for conditions or disabilities that are more subjective than objective, or disabilities that include symptoms that cannot be definitely shown by commonly administered medical tests.  An insurer intent on denying a claim may use Independent Medical Evaluations (IMEs), Functional Capacity Examinations (FCEs), Neuropsychological Evaluations, or a combination of these three exams, in its efforts to undercut a policyholder’s own doctor’s evaluation and medical records (particularly if the policyholder’s treating doctor is supportive of the claim and has clearly indicated that the policyholder should not return to work in their own occupation).

As we discussed previously, the limitations inherent in neuropsychological evaluations may lead to a conclusion that you are less cognitively impaired than you truly are, and/or a recommendation that you are able to return to work.  Further, if the test is administered by a biased evaluator, results can be interpreted and manipulated in order to deny your claim.

What Can I Do?

First, make sure that your insurance company can actually require a neuropsychological examination under the terms of your policy.  Some policies include provisions requiring that claimants undergo “medical exams” or exams “conducted by a physician.”  If your policy contained this sort of provision, you could potentially argue that the insurance company cannot require you to undergo a neuropsychological evaluation, since a neuropsychologist is not a physician, and this sort of exam is not strictly a “medical exam.”

If you must undergo the evaluation, there are several steps you can proactively take to prevent the examination from unfairly complicating or jeopardizing you claim, many of which are similar to steps you should take before an IME.

  • Be sure to provide complete medical records.
  • Carefully fill out any intake paperwork.
  • Advise your medical team of the request for the evaluation.
  • Take notes, including what questions were asked during the interview portion of the evaluation.
  • Report back to your medical team after the test, especially regarding any negative effects, such as increased fatigue after the evaluation.
  • Request a copy of the report.

It is important to note that neuropsychological evaluations are not inherently biased or a poor indicator of disability.  In fact, they can actually be helpful in confirming your disability and demonstrate an impaired level of functioning that makes it impossible to return to work.  In some instances, you may wish to undergo an exam with a truly independent examiner, either proactively or as a follow up to one ordered by your insurer.  As with any new evaluation or course of treatment, you should carefully discuss this option with your current medical team and attorney, and obtain recommendations to a reputable evaluator.

Sources:

Atif B. Malike, MD; Chief Editor, et al., Neuropsychological Evaluation, Medscape, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/317596-overview, updated May 18, 2017.

Neuropsychological Evaluation FAQ, University of North Carolina School of Medicine Department of Neurology, https://www.med.unc.edu/neurology/divisions/movement-disorders/npsycheval

Kathryn Wilder Schaaf, PhD, et al, Frequently Asked Questions About Neuropsychological Evaluation, Virginia Commonwealth University Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwir3pKk__fUAhUBEmMKHenkDzsQFggoMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tbinrc.com%2FWebsites%2Ftbinrcnew%2Fimages%2FNeuropsych_FAQ.pdf&usg=AFQjCNG0Mv3o17ZrNmXuDN5ITUIh4fWYtA&cad=rja

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What is a Neuropsychological Evaluation? – Part 3

Our previous posts in this serious have examined what a neuropsychological evaluation is and how these exams are conducted.  In this post we’ll be talking about some of the limitations associated with these types of exams.

How Reliable Are Neuropsychological Evaluations?

As we explained in previous posts, neuropsychological evaluations seek to provide information about the brain and behavior through the use of established, standardized tests that produce quantitative data.  This data can then be used to confirm and back up a subject’s reports of cognitive impairment.

These evaluations can serve several purposes, such as corroborating the cognitive effects of a disability, or outlining a subject’s limitations in his or her daily life (including the inability to return to one’s own occupation).  For example, an evaluation might show that a dentist with a head injury has impaired motor skills and visuospatial processing abilities that make it unsafe for the dentist to continue treating patients.  In this sense, an evaluation can provide data that can lend further support to a disability claim, but wouldn’t necessarily show up on an MRI or the results from other types of medical testing.

However, while these evaluations can be useful, they also have certain limitations that are important to consider.  As with Functional Capacity Evaluations (FCEs) the examination is truly just a snapshot—the data is based on your functioning on a specific day, for a limited amount of time, in a quiet and controlled testing room.

Generally, findings indicate that performance on tests of motor function, speed of cognitive processing, cognitive flexibility, complex attention, and memory are related positively to real-word success. However, some argue that these exams do not adequately take into account the fact that, in the real world, several executive functions (such as recognizing a task must be completed, starting a task, switching tasks, making needed changes, finishing a task, etc.) can occur simultaneously.  Further, the administered test may not indicate whether a subject was mentally exhausted after the test,[1] and thus may not provide any insight into whether the subject is able to sustain the same demonstrated level of executive functioning day in and day out.

While the administered tests are designed to be objective and produce results that can be extrapolated across populations, this is not always possible.  While a subject’s results should be compared with both population-based norms as well as specific patient populations for strengths and weaknesses, there can be gaps in normative data for certain age, educational, and intellectual ranges.[2]  This can be especially true for minority populations.[3]  Along these same lines, an evaluator may not take into account norms specific to doctors, or a doctor’s need for higher performance on certain tests (e.g. those for sensory-perceptual functions), when assessing whether a return to work is possible.

Excessive fatigue, medications, lack of motivation (sometimes due to depression), emotional distress, severe psychiatric conditions, serious medical complications, and illicit substances can also all impact the reliability of an evaluation.

Additionally, as we’ve discussed before in the context of Independent Medical Examinations (IMEs), a neuropsychological examiner selected by an insurance company may be presented as independent, but may not truly be so.  An examiner selected and paid for by an insurer may be more likely to report that a subject is “malingering,” trying to influence a test’s outcome, or not putting forth a true effort.

In our next post, we will further explain why an insurer might require a neuropsychological evaluation, and how these exams can impact a disability claim.

[1] Atif B. Malike, MD; Chief Editor, et al., Neuropsychological Evaluation, Medscape, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/317596-overview, updated May 18, 2017.

[2] Id.

[3] Id. (citing Decker SL, Schneider WJ, Hale JB, Estimating Rates of Impairment in Neuropsychological Test Batters: A Comparison of Quantitative Models, Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 2011 Dec 15 [Medline].

Sources:

Atif B. Malike, MD; Chief Editor, et al., Neuropsychological Evaluation, Medscape, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/317596-overview, updated May 18, 2017.

Neuropsychological Evaluation FAQ, University of North Carolina School of Medicine Department of Neurology, https://www.med.unc.edu/neurology/divisions/movement-disorders/npsycheval

Kathryn Wilder Schaaf, PhD, et al, Frequently Asked Questions About Neuropsychological Evaluation, Virginia Commonwealth University Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwir3pKk__fUAhUBEmMKHenkDzsQFggoMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tbinrc.com%2FWebsites%2Ftbinrcnew%2Fimages%2FNeuropsych_FAQ.pdf&usg=AFQjCNG0Mv3o17ZrNmXuDN5ITUIh4fWYtA&cad=rja

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What is a Neuropsychological Evaluation? – Part 2

In our last post, we looked at what a neuropsychological evaluation is, and how it can be used as a tool to identify cognitive impairments.  In this post we will talking about how a neuropsychological evaluation works in more detail.

What Can I Expect During a Neuropsychological Evaluation?

A neuropsychological evaluation will generally consist of (1) a review of your medical and other records (this could include your insurance claim file); (2) an interview with you and sometimes another person such as a family member or caregiver who knows you well, (especially if your disability impacts your ability to self-report); and (3) the administration of tests that measure both your mood and abilities.

The evaluation will typically begin with an interview and then proceed to testing.  The tests will be both written and oral, and vary in length and complexity.  Often the tests will be administered by a specially trained technician, or a psychometrist.  The typical evaluation takes between two to five hours to complete, but can stretch up to eight hours and/or be split into two sessions.  Conditions such as fatigue or motor impairments can slow down the process.

The results will generally be presented in a report that includes a summary of the tests conducted, a summary of your key medical and personal history, your current issues (i.e. the reason the neuropsychological exam was requested), the results of the testing, how these results compare to other people with your background, and a list of recommendations.  As explained previously, these recommendations can help indicate the need for additional treatment, suggest treatment options, and/or provide information on cognitive deficiencies and resulting physical and mental limitations.

The evaluation is designed to assess your knowledge, functioning, and skills at the time of the exam. Because of this, it is not the sort of test that you would “study” for, in the same sense that you would study for, say, an academic exam.  However, if you are going to be undergoing a neuropsychological exam, evaluators typically recommend that you:

  • Get a good night’s sleep
  • Put forth your best effort
  • Provide a list of all medications and take all medication as normally scheduled, unless instructed otherwise
  • Bring a friend or family member if you have trouble relating information about your history (for the interview portion of the examination)
  • Make sure the evaluator has access to your medical records
  • Do not consume alcohol or other illicit substances within the 24 hours prior to the evaluation
  • Notify the examiner of excessive fatigue, psychological distress, or frequent changes in your ability to move

Our next posts in this series will address the reliability of neuropsychological examinations and why your insurance company may ask for one.

Sources:

Atif B. Malike, MD; Chief Editor, et al., Neuropsychological Evaluation, Medscape, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/317596-overview, updated May 18, 2017.

Neuropsychological Evaluation FAQ, University of North Carolina School of Medicine Department of Neurology, https://www.med.unc.edu/neurology/divisions/movement-disorders/npsycheval

Kathryn Wilder Schaaf, PhD, et al, Frequently Asked Questions About Neuropsychological Evaluation, Virginia Commonwealth University Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwir3pKk__fUAhUBEmMKHenkDzsQFggoMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tbinrc.com%2FWebsites%2Ftbinrcnew%2Fimages%2FNeuropsych_FAQ.pdf&usg=AFQjCNG0Mv3o17ZrNmXuDN5ITUIh4fWYtA&cad=rja

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What is a Neuropsychological Evaluation? – Part 1

We’ve talked before about how your insurance company may require you to undergo an independent medical examination (IME) by a physician of their choosing and how they may also ask for a Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE).

Neuropsychological evaluations are another tool insurers utilize when investigating disability claims.  A neuropsychological evaluation is also something that a claimant filing a disability claim may choose to undergo independently, to provide additional proof of his or her disability.  In this series of posts, we will be talking about what a neuropsychological evaluation is, what to expect during an examination, and how an exam could affect your claim.

What is a Neuropsychological Evaluation?

Neuropsychology is the study of the relationship between the brain and behavior.  A neuropsychological evaluation is a method of testing where a neuropsychologist seeks to obtain data about a subject’s cognitive, behavioral, linguistic, motor, and executive functioning in order to identify changes that are, often, the result of a disease or injury.  The evaluation can lead to the diagnosis of a cognitive deficit or the confirmation of a diagnosis, as well as provide differential diagnoses.

Neuropsychological evaluations are most often associated with conditions that exhibit cognitive dysfunctions, such as

Conditions such as those enumerated above often have symptoms that vary person by person, and the amount of cognitive impairment can often not be fully assessed by other diagnostic tools such as an MRI, or a traditional psychological evaluation.

Neuropsychological tests are standardized tests that are given and scored in a similar manner each time they are used.  The tests are designed to evaluate the following:

  • Intellectual Functioning
  • Academic Achievement
  • Language Processing
  • Visuospatial Processing
  • Attention/Concentration
  • Verbal Learning and Memory
  • Executive Functions
  • Speed of Processing
  • Sensory-Perceptual Functions
  • Motor Speed and Strength
  • Motivation
  • Personality

There are many different accepted tests for each domain listed above.  Accordingly, an examiner will likely not perform every test, but rather select tests from each category that will best evaluate the particular question posed by the referrer.

The goal of these neuropsychological tests is to produce raw data.  The results are then evaluated by comparing test scores to healthy individuals of a similar background (age, education, gender, ethnic background, etc.) and to expected levels of cognitive functioning.  The data is then interpreted by the neuropsychologist, and perhaps other providers, to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the subject’s brain, provide suggestions for potential treatment options, set a standard for any future testing, evaluate a course of treatment, make recommendations on steps and modifications that can improve daily living, and evaluate whether a subject can return to work with or without modifications.

In our next post we will go look at what you can expect during a neurospychological evaluation.

Sources:

Atif B. Malike, MD; Chief Editor, et al., Neuropsychological Evaluation, Medscape, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/317596-overview, updated May 18, 2017.

Neuropsychological Evaluation FAQ, University of North Carolina School of Medicine Department of Neurology, https://www.med.unc.edu/neurology/divisions/movement-disorders/npsycheval

Kathryn Wilder Schaaf, PhD, et al, Frequently Asked Questions About Neuropsychological Evaluation, Virginia Commonwealth University Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwir3pKk__fUAhUBEmMKHenkDzsQFggoMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tbinrc.com%2FWebsites%2Ftbinrcnew%2Fimages%2FNeuropsych_FAQ.pdf&usg=AFQjCNG0Mv3o17ZrNmXuDN5ITUIh4fWYtA&cad=rja

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